Mass email GOTV messages in thirteen experiments exhibit negative effects on registration and turnout that are both substantively and statistically insignificant.
The quality and timing of GOTV phone calls are more important than message content or whether the calls are made by volunteers or paid professionals. Professional phone banks are found to be cost-competitive with canvassing and leafleting and more effective than the calls placed by volunteers.
Pooled results from eight voter mobilization volunteer phone call experiments indicate that brief volunteer phone conversations that are personal in tone can be effective in mobilizing voters. Volunteer phone campaigns can be cost-effective with door-to-door canvassing.
Door-to-door canvassing can be effective in the two weeks prior to Election Day, whereas earlier canvassing efforts are not found to be as effective. Multiple visits may not increase effectiveness of campaigns. Candidate-centered messages are more effective than partisan-centered messages.
Participation in First-Time Voter Programs, in which high school students attend casual, informative sessions about voting and political participation, is found to have strong mobilization effects on new voters.
Partisan GOTV campaign tactics are estimated to produce mobilization effects similar to results reported in nonpartisan experiments. Partisan door hangers may be more effective than nonpartisan doorhangers in mobilizing voters.
Results from four separate experiments in which varying degrees of partisan or non-partisan messages are presented. Only results from the nonpartisan phone campaign experiment yielded substantive and statistically significant estimated mobilization effects.
Estimates of the effects of door-to-door canvassing and phone call campaign experiments are compromised by low contact rates and treatment of control group subjects.
Student-based door-to-door canvassing during a highly competitive election season does not increase turnout in the overall subject population. However, student canvassers are successful in increasing turnout among voters under the age of thirty.
Findings from one of two experiments are equivocal about the effects of CDs containing voter education information targeting young voters due to low contact rates.