The quality and timing of GOTV phone calls are more important than message content or whether the calls are made by volunteers or paid professionals. Professional phone banks are found to be cost-competitive with canvassing and leafleting and more effective than the calls placed by volunteers.
Comparing the effects of GOTV calls made by professional phone banks at different stages of a mobilization campaign, results suggest that calls made the week of the election are no more effective than calls made four weeks prior to the election.
Door-to-door canvassing can be effective in the two weeks prior to Election Day, whereas earlier canvassing efforts are not found to be as effective. Multiple visits may not increase effectiveness of campaigns. Candidate-centered messages are more effective than partisan-centered messages.
An election day mobilization campaign targeting registered voters between the ages of 18 and 25 is found to increase turnout, particularly among voters that had previously expressed an intention to vote.